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Articles

Sponsor-and Team-Related Intentions of Salient Market Segments in a Naming-Rights Sponsorship Scenario
Terry Eddy - University of Arkansas
B. Colin Cork - University of Arkansas
Pages 142-162

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While facility naming-rights agreements are becoming more prevalent in intercollegiate athletics, both administrators and fans are still somewhat hesitant toward this type of sponsorship. Previous research explored college sport fans’ attitudes and their role in predicting behavioral intentions, but other non-attitudinal factors have yet to receive attention. The purpose of this study was to examine differences between fans’ future team- and sponsor-related intentions (i.e., purchase intentions) based on aspects of behavioral involvement (i.e., donations, event attendance) and demographic characteristics. Seven pertinent characteristics (age, gender, donor level, favorite team, game attendance, alumni status, and number of years as a fan) were identified from the literature, and differences between fan segments were assessed on both future sponsor- and team-related intentions in a hypothetical naming-rights scenario. Results of the MANOVA analyses revealed that higher level donors (in terms of their donation amount) were more likely to respond favorably to a naming-rights scenario than lower level donors. Significant differences were also found on gender and favorite team. The authors present additional theoretical and practical implications.

Stakeholders’ Perceptions of Parent Involvement in Young Adults’ Intercollegiate Athletic Careers: Policy, Education, and Desired Outcomes
Travis E. Dorsch - Utah State University
Katie Lowe - Purdue University
Aryn M. Dotterer - Purdue University
Logan Lyons - Utah State University
Analise Barker - Utah State University
Pages 124-141

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Parent involvement is an integral, but potentially problematic, aspect of this transition. Therefore, the need exists for campus-level parent education in the context of intercollegiate athletics. The present research was designed to address key stakeholders’ perceptions of parent involvement in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) athletics, as well as their perceptions of core design components, barriers to feasibility, and expected outcomes of parent education in the setting of intercollegiate athletics. Four senior administrators, 25 coaches, and one team director from two NCAA Division I member-institutions took part in face-to-face, semi-structured interviews. Data were synthesized to create a grounded theory highlighting types of negative parent involvement, policy considerations for NCAA administrators, and barriers to implementing parent education. Additionally, structural elements of educational programming for parents at the NCAA Division I level, barriers to achieving positive parent involvement, and desired outcomes for student-athletes are discussed. A range of demographic factors (e.g., class in school, student-athlete gender, sport culture) were also identified that may impact the implementation and efficacy of campus-level parent education. Recommendations and considerations for institutions wishing to implement campus-level educational programming for parents are provided.

Examining the Relationship between Age of Fan Identification and Donor Behavior at an NCAA Division I Athletics Department
Nels Popp - University of North Carolina
Hunter Barrett - University of North Carolina
Erianne Weight - University of North Carolina
Pages 107-123

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Fundraisers in NCAA Division I athletics departments are under increasing pressure to procure donations. Prior studies have examined both donor motivations and consumer behaviors tied to fan identification. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between donor behavior and the life stage at which donors identify with a collegiate athletics program. The primary purpose of this study was to determine if donor motivations and giving amounts differ between groups of donors who became highly identified with an athletics program at different life stages. Results from 2,312 survey respondents at a “Power 5” institution showed significant differences among donor motives between those who became highly identified with an athletics program prior to turning 18 compared to those who did not. No significant differences were found in annual giving levels and lifetime giving amount among groups stratified by their initial age of highly identifying with the athletics program. In an era of heightened emphasis on declining college student attendance, it may be more prudent to increase an emphasis on family/youth marketing efforts in order to cultivate future athletics donors.

Football as a Catalyst to Illuminate Issues of Black Student Engagement
Cherese F. Fine - Clemson University
Kenyae L. Reese - Nashville Public Schools
Lori M. Pindar - Clemson University
James W. Satterfield, Jr. - Clemson University
Pages 86 - 106

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Athletics has played an important role in the integration and connection students have with their college alma mater. However, research shows that Black students do not readily attend athletic games or participate in related events. Findings from this study indicated that Black students engaged in football-related activities and the campus community, but in ways that did not stimulate further or continued participation in the larger campus community. This study advances our understanding of how and why Black students engage in football games at Hartwell University, and to identify leverages to improve their success in addressing the social and communal needs of diverse students on campus.

Theory of Work Adjustment and Student-Athletes’ Transition out of Sport
Jessica M. Leonard - West Virginia University
Christine J. Schimmel - West Virginia University
Pages 62 - 85

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Student-athletes have a significant amount of responsibilities, both in the sporting and academic worlds.  While research shows that student-athletes can learn transferable skills from competitive sport, other factors (e.g., high athletic identity, lack of time/commitment to non-sporting events) may impact their transition out of collegiate sport.  Additionally, there is a lack of standardized approaches to assisting student-athletes with their eventual retirement from competitive sport, despite most student-athletes having the ability to plan for it before graduation.  This study examined the potential use of Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA; Lofquist & Dawis, 1969), a vocational theory that distinguishes itself by emphasizing the “mutual responsiveness” of the environment and the individual.  The purpose of the study was to gain a consensus on the importance, applicability, and potential use of core elements of TWA with student-athletes.  A three-round modified Delphi panel was used and included experts (with at least 10 years of experience) from the fields of academic advising, sport psychology, and counseling psychology.  The results indicate endorsement of certain elements of TWA; however, further research should examine the role of values and overall practical implementation in our academic and athletic departments.

Gaining S-T-E-A-M: A General Athletic Department Social Media Strategy
Brendan O’Hallarn - Old Dominion University
Craig A. Morehead - Old Dominion University
Shana L. Pribesh - Old Dominion University
Pages 39 - 61

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In the 10 years since the invention of Facebook, social media sites have become an indispensable part of the marketing and communications strategy employed by a broad spectrum of organizations, including university athletic departments. While social media is almost universally used, a review of academic literature suggests the study of deployment of social media resources, and analysis of their effectiveness, is still very much in preliminary stages. Professional literature on social media use is out in front of peer-reviewed research. Therefore, we use Funk’s framework for social media practices as a point of departure, offering a social media strategy specifically for university athletic departments, grounded in Social Marketing Theory. Using a case study of Old Dominion University, a mid-sized, U.S. college athletic department, the authors analyze the 40 social media pages run by the department in comparison to guidelines created from the Funk framework and the growing body of academic literature, conduct interviews with practitioners in the athletic department, and a focus group of fans. Using this data, the authors create a case study-based list of best practices, known by the acronym S-T-E-A-M, which could assist similar university athletic departments in their use of social media.

From Tweets to Seats: How Does Social Networking Site Use Affect Commuter University Students’ Football Fandom?
Matthew J. Haught - University of Memphis
Erin Willis - University of Colorado-Boulder
Ashley Furrow - University of Memphis
David L. Morris III - University of Oregon
Karen Freberg - University of Louisville
Pages 17 - 38

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Urban universities serving a highly commuter-student population often struggle to draw student fans to athletic events. College athletic departments want to reach this group because they might become brand ambassadors for the university and can continue to contribute to the athletics program after graduation as a non-student fan. College athletic departments have embraced social networking sites (SNS) as a means for engagement. This study surveys students at two urban commuter universities to create student fan profiles so that institutions can determine which will be the most important football SNS for users. Findings indicate four fan types that engage with college football SNS for varying reasons, but that using SNS does not predict game attendance. This study offers suggestions for how athletic departments at public urban universities can help these students to develop a sense of pride and belonging to their institution. Implications for future research about SNS and behaviors, as well as for college football marketers are discussed.

Nutritional Regrets and Knowledge in National Collegiate Athletic Association
Division I Athletes: Establishing a Foundation for Educational Interventions

Leilani Madrigal - University of Nebraska - Lincoln
Patrick B. Wilson - Old Dominion University
Judith M. Burnfield - Institute for Rehabilitation Science and Engineering
Pages 1 - 16

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The aim of this study was to describe the nutritional regrets and sport nutrition knowledge of Division I NCAA athletes and determine if higher knowledge would be related to fewer regrets. Additionally, we explored whether differences would emerge on nutrition knowledge or nutritional regrets based on gender or year in school. This was a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study conducted during the spring and summer of 2015. A total of 196 Division I NCAA student-athletes (145 male and 51 female) from a single university completed a questionnaire at the end of their competitive season. Comparisons on nutrition-related regrets and sport nutrition knowledge were conducted using Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests. A Spearman’s rho correlation was used to examine the relationship between nutrition-related regrets and sports nutrition knowledge. Most student-athletes possessed regrets related to their eating habits, with few regretting weight management practices. Total nutritional regrets were higher in females than males, but did not differ significantly by school level. There was no significant association between nutritional knowledge and regrets. Interventions that incorporate education, strategies that increase dietary choice self-efficacy, and goal-setting may prove to be more efficacious in minimizing regrets in nutrition-related decision-making.

Book Reviews

Introduction to Intercollegiate Athletics
Edited by Eddie Comeaux. Published 2015 by Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD. (416 pages).
- Reviewed by Robyn Lubisco, Ph.D. - Fairleigh Dickinson University
- Pages xvi-xviii

The 100-Year Decision: Texas A&M and the SEC
By R. Bowen Loftin. Published 2014 by Texas A&M Press, College Station, Texas. (224 pages).
- Reviewed by Keith Strudler, Ph.D. - Marist College
- Pages xiii-xv

The Reappearing Act: Coming Out as Gay on a College Basketball Team Led by Born-Again Christians
By Kate Fagan, Published 2014 by Skyhorse Publishing, Inc., New York (200 pages).
- Reviewed by Doug Blais, Ph.D. - Southern New Hampshire University
- Pages x-xii

The Opening Kickoff: The Tumultuous Birth of a Football Nation
By Dave Revsine. Published in 2014 by Lyons Press, Guilford, CT. (304 pages).
- Reviewed by Nicholas Schlereth, M.S. - University of New Mexico
- Pages viii-ix

Cheated: The UNC Scandal, the Education of Athletes, and the Future of Big-Time College Sports
By Jay M. Smith & Mary Willingham. Published 2015 by Potomac Books, Lincoln, NE.
(280 pages).
- Reviewed by Meg G. Hancock, Ph.D. - University of Louisville
- Pages v-vii

Strong Inside: Perry Wallace and the Collision of Race and Sports in the South
By Andrew Maraniss. Published 2014 by Vanderbilt University Press, Nashville, Tennessee.
(467 pages).
- Reviewed by Adam Love, Ph.D. - Mississippi State University
- Pages i-iv