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Articles

The State of Intercollegiate Athletics at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs): Past, Present, & Persistence
Joseph N. Cooper - University of Connecticut
J. Kenyatta Cavil - Texas Southern University
Geremy Cheeks - Texas A&M University
Pages 307 - 332

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The purpose of this paper is to provide a historical overview of intercollegiate athletic programs at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs), highlight the current challenges facing these programs, and offer a plan for self-sustainability and collective progress. Prior to the 1960s, the sustainability of HBCU athletic programs was rooted in their unifying missions and interdependent relationships. However, following widespread assimilation efforts in the post-Civil Rights era, HBCU athletic programs suffered from the pillaging of Black athletic talent from the Black community to major Division I Historically White Colleges and Universities (HWCUs). Previous historical assessments of HBCUs athletic programs have confined their analysis to major historical events, the evolution of conference affiliations, and the attendance at various HBCU classic games (Armstrong, 2001; Cavil, 2013a; Hodge, Bennett, & Collins, 2013; Wiggins, 2000). In the current manuscript, critical race theory (CRT) was incorporated as an analytic tool to outline the multi-level challenges facing HBCU athletic programs within the structural arrangements of the United States (U.S.) and the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). In an effort to improve the plight of HBCU athletic programs, the authors offer Ten Pillars for Active Engagement for Sport Leadership & Administration in Creating Athletic Organizational Success & Sustainability for autonomy governance as well as a secession plan as a pathway for success.

Town & Gown…& Jerseys? NCAA Division III Athletics as Social Anchors
Matthew Katz - Miami University
Aaron W. Clopton - The University of Kansas
Pages 285 - 306

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The authors explore the potential for NCAA Division III athletic programs to act as social anchors within their respective communities. Using students and community members (n=504) from five different Division III institutions, measures of individual and overall social capital, community identity, and the degree of personal identification with the school and the school’s athletic teams were captured to explore the impact of Division III athletics on students and community stakeholders. Results indicate that Division III athletics does not have the same impact as prior research conducted with programs participating in larger levels of competition, yet the data reveal a cognitive connection between athletic programs and the surrounding communities. Implications of this connection are explored in terms of the impacts and effects of Division III athletics.

The Impact of the Academic Progress Rate (APR) on Low Resource or Non-BCS Institutions as it Relates to Football and/or Men’s Basketball Programs
Nathan Kirkpatrick - Samford University
Billy Hawkins - University of Georgia
Janette Hill - University of Georgia
Joel Maxcy - Temple University
Pages 263 - 284

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The purpose of this study was to research the impact of the NCAA Academic Progress Rate (APR) on low resource or non-BCS institutions as it relates to football and/or men’s basketball programs. In conducting the study, APR scores from 2005-2009 were used, financial information from the “Equity in Athletics” website was collected, and a previously piloted online survey was sent to 882 athletic and academic administrators at 275 low resource or non-BCS institutions in the United States. A total of 297 participants completed all or a majority of the survey questions for a 33.6% response rate. Survey responses were analyzed using phenomenological commitments and categorized by identical or similar information, emergent themes, and important best practices. The most important results showed that: 28.83% of the participants believed the impact of the APR on these institutions as it related to football and/or men’s basketball programs were “negative/tremendously negative.” In addition, from this 28.83% of responses, triangulation showed that 67.79% (40) of these participants’ football and/or men’s basketball programs also have had underperforming APR scores and negative profit at some point from 2005-2009.

Exploring the Role of Educational Institutions in Student-Athlete Community Engagement
Christopher R. Barnhill - Georgia Southern University
Brian A. Turner - The Ohio State University
Pages 245 - 262

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The purpose of this study was to explore the impact that psychological contracts between student-athletes and their coaches have on team commitment. Division I student-athletes from three universities were sampled. The results of the study demonstrated that breaches of the psychological contract were significantly related to lower levels of affective team commitment and normative team commitment of student-athletes. The results also indicated that team sport student-athletes are more likely to experience psychological contract breaches that those who compete in individual sports.

Exploring the Role of Educational Institutions in Student-Athlete Community Engagement
Matthew R. Huml - University of Louisville
Per G. Svensson - University of Louisville
Meg G. Hancock - University of Louisville
Pages 224 - 244

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Student engagement has become a priority in higher education with the increased urgency for institutions to improve the citizenship of their student body (Bringle & Hatcher, 1996). This emphasis has been echoed by the NCAA, who views community service as a means to providing additional development to student-athletes (NCAA, 2007). Additionally, community service has shown to improve academic development, interpersonal skills, and civic responsibility for the participants (Astin & Sax, 1998). With athletic departments motivated to provide community service opportunities for their student-athletes both athletically and academically, this study employed content analysis to explore similarities and differences among NCAA Division I and Division II athletic departments in how they communicate community service efforts both internally (student-athlete handbook) and externally (mission statement). The results show a relative lack of community service within athletic department mission statements, while those that did mention community service were not always indicative of the amount of service efforts communicated via department websites. Additional concerns include student-athlete handbooks mentioning community service as punishment and too few NCAA Division II institutions mentioning community service, especially after the implementation of the Division II Philosophy Statement.

The Revival of Multiyear Scholarships in the Twenty-First Century: Which Universities Supported and Opposed this Legislation and Why?
Allen L. Sack - University of New Haven
Austin E. McComas - University of New Haven
Esin Cakan - University of New Haven
Pages 207 - 223

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In 2012, members of the NCAA’s Division I approved legislation to allow schools to award multiyear scholarships, thus reversing a policy that had been in place for 39 years. The purpose of this study was to develop and to test hypotheses based on institution-level variables for why NCAA FBS (Formerly Division IA) schools voted as they did on this historic piece of NCAA legislation. The study also discusses the implications of this change in financial aid policy for the future of college sport. By reviewing the evolution of NCAA athletic scholarship policies, current literature on athletic recruiting, and the NCAA’s reaction to recent lawsuits related to athletic scholarships, three hypotheses were developed and tested using a multivariate analysis. The hypothesis that a school’s recruiting power would be an important factor was not supported by the data. However, the academic rank of a college or university did influence the vote as did the institution’s level of involvement in the FBS governance hierarchy.

Individual and Social Predictors of Performance-Enhancing and Dietary Supplement Use Among Male NCAA Division III Athletes
Cheryl P. Stuntz - St. Lawrence University
Jonathan C. Edwards - St. Lawrence University & Florida Atlantic University
Miranda Kaye - Ithaca College
Pages 187 - 206

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Supplement use among athletes is predictive of later doping (Backhouse, Whitaker, & Petroczi, 2011; Lucidi, Zelli, Mallia, Gramo, Russo, & Violani, 2008). Thus, understanding predictors of legal supplement use in sports can be useful for potentially reducing later use of illegal, performance-enhancing substances. The purposes of the present study were to examine (1) the frequency of use and main reasons for use and (2) the individual (task and ego orientation) and social (motivational climate and team norms) predictors of use for six substances separately. Male collegiate athletes (N = 141) from four sports completed questionnaires assessing substance use, goal orientation, motivational climate, and team norms regarding use of each substance. Frequency of use as well as main reasons for use varied among the six substances. Team norm approving of the substance was the strongest and most consistent predictor of substance use, predicting higher use of protein powder, caffeine, glutamine, and multivitamins. Higher task orientation predicted lower use of multivitamins, while greater ego orientation and lower performance climate predicted higher use of protein powder. Results emphasize the important role teammates play in predicting athletes’ supplement use. In addition, as results varied from substance to substance, future research should consider substances independently rather than as groups in analyses.

NCAA Division-I Athletic Departments: 21st Century Athletic Company Towns
Richard M. Southall - University of South Carolina
Jonathan D. Weiler - The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Pages 161 - 186

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Utilizing a company-town metaphor, this paper analyzes the working and living conditions of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I men's basketball and Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) football players within athletic departments at Predominately White Institutions (PWIs). After summarizing previous “neo-plantation slavery” and “sex-worker” analogies, this paper analyzes – utilizing Contemporary Theory of Metaphor (CTM) – the complex relationship between these athletes and PWI athletic departments. Drawing upon historic and contemporary legal, sociological and economic sources, we compare these athletes’ existence to that of oscillating migrant laborers in 19th and 20th Century US company towns. Specific elements of big-time college sport analyzed include: (a) the degree to which profit athletes’ daily burdens and obligations exceed those of other university employees, (b) the geographic migration patterns of profit-athletes, (c) a paternalism that suffuses the Collegiate Model of Athletics, promoting intensive surveillance of players' conduct, both in the work context itself and during their ‘free time’, (d) in-kind compensation (grant-in-aid) that is akin to scrip, (e) limited athlete representation in college-sport governance, (f) college-sport participation health risks, and (g) moral and character-based justifications for the Collegiate Model. Consistent with CTM, we contend this heretofore-unutilized comparison uniquely disorganizes the common-sense view of big-time college sport, producing an effectively reorganized metaphor that challenges NCAA hegemony and provides a context for improved communication and social action within the institutional field of US college sport.

An Examination of Student-Athlete Perceptions of Division I Social Media Policies
Eric M. Snyder - University of Oklahoma
Pages 132 - 160

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This quantitative study examines student-athlete perceptions of social media policies that monitor and/or ban use. In addition, the study examines the frequency and intensity of student-athlete social media use. The findings revealed student-athletes’ social media use and their level of acceptability towards monitoring and/or banning social media policies. Facebook and Twitter were the most popular types of social media used by student-athletes (N= 169). The majority of the student-athletes felt the following banning policies were unacceptable: a complete ban on social media use (93%), a ban of social media while in season (82%), and a ban during game day (59%). The student-athletes were accepting of the following monitoring policies: coach (75%), athletic department staff (72%), athletics director (68%) and team captain (62%). Interestingly, the majority of student-athletes were not accepting of monitoring by a university professor or advisor (54%) or outsourced company (52%). No differences existed between male and female perceptions of monitoring and banning social media policies. However, an underclassman (Freshman/Sophomore) was less likely than an upperclassman (Junior/Senior/Post Baccalaureate) to find the following policies unacceptable: a complete ban on game day, ban on certain words, and complete ban while in season. Practical implications for athletic department administrators are discussed.

Embracing the Culture of Winning in Big-Time College Football: Exploring How Fans Reinforce Coaching Power
Jimmy Sanderson - Clemson University
Robin Hardin - University of Tennessee
Joshua Pate - James Madison University
Pages 114 - 131

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College football coaches are often the highest paid employee at their institution and as such, have a great deal of influence. This research explored how fans reinforced coaching influence by examining responses to an incident between University of South Carolina head football coach Steve Spurrier and Ron Morris, a member of the local media. Using social identity theory as a framework, a thematic analysis of 221 postings to an article Morris wrote on The State website apologizing for criticisms he made towards Spurrier was conducted. Results indicated that fans reinforced coaching influence through: (a) personal vendetta attributions; (b) divergence with the fan base; (c) boycotts; (d) collective attacks; and (e) admonishments. A small portion of the sample expressed support for Morris through vindication. The results suggest that fans reinforce coaching influence to maintain emotional connections with a winning coach and football program. As fans do this, it leads to stronger in-group affiliation as they vilify those who express dissent and criticism towards a coach, which further strengthens a coach’s influence at the institution.

Does Discontinuing Intercollegiate Football Correlate with Institutional Attractiveness to Potential Students? Evidence from Three Universities
Willis A. Jones - University of Kentucky
Pages 92 - 113

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Recently a number of colleges and universities have made the decision to discontinue their intercollegiate football program (Olson, 2010; Springer, 2010). The impact of this decision on an institution’s ability to recruit potential students, however, has been understudied. Using difference-in-differences estimation, this study examined freshmen application trends at three NCAA Football Championship Subdivision (FCS) institutions which dropped intercollegiate football in the spring of 2004, in comparison to freshmen application trends at peer institutions which retained their football program after 2004. The findings suggest that this change in institutional athletic policy may be largely uncorrelated with reductions in admissions applications received.

Intercollegiate Sport and the Environment: Examining Fan Engagement Based on Athletics Department Sustainability Efforts
Jonathan M. Casper - North Carolina State University
Michael E. Pfahl - Ohio University
Brian McCullough - Bowling Green State University
Pages 65 - 91

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The purpose of this study was to examine how environmental education efforts at a sporting event related to environmental behavioral intentions, in the context of a promotional green game, based on value-belief-norm (VBN) theory. A total of 2,700 respondents, who attended an intercollegiate Division I football game with an environmental sustainability promotional theme, completed an online survey. Structural equation modeling was applied to examine the linkages between values, beliefs, norms, and behavioral intentions. The results found that a majority of fans recognized or participated in green game game-day activities and fans expected athletic departments to incorporate environmental sustainability actions and education in athletic events. Tests of the VBN model found respondents’ values, beliefs, and norms significantly predicted pro-environmental behavioral intentions at the sport event and everyday life. This was the first study to examine environmental education related to fan behavior in a sporting context. The findings provide evidence that through environmental education, sport organizations may impact fan environmental behavior intentions, further emphasizing the importance of environmental educational actions by sport organizations.

Comparing Division IA Scholarship and Non-Scholarship Student-Athletes: A Discriminant Analysis
Lisa M. Rubin - University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Vicki J. Rosser - University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Pages 43 - 64

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Many research studies have examined the academic performance and graduation rates of college student-athletes. The limited focus on scholarship student-athletes has overlooked the majority of NCAA student-athletes, those participating in collegiate athletic programs without athletic scholarships. This study examined the academic performance, time-to-degree, and demographic and profile characteristics of Division IA scholarship and non-scholarship student-athletes. The theoretical framework for this study was work motivation viewing athletic scholarships as extrinsic rewards. The researchers applied descriptive discriminant analysis (DDA) utilizing secondary data to compare scholarship and non-scholarship student-athletes across several variables.
A discriminant function analysis revealed that non-scholarship student-athletes were described by the variables of sport (Women’s Outdoor Track and Field), race (Asian, White), sport type (Individual), and sex (Female). Non-Scholarship student-athletes had higher grade point averages than scholarship student-athletes. The scholarship student-athlete group was described by race (Black), sport (Football, Men’s Basketball, Women’s Basketball), sport type (Team), and sex (Male). Scholarship student-athletes graduated in fewer semesters than non-scholarship student-athletes did. This finding suggests that academic performance and time-to-degree variables are inversely related based on scholarship status. The results of the study showed significant differences between the scholarship and non-scholarship student-athlete groups based on demographic, academic performance, and time-to-degree variables.

Self-Efficacy in Intercollegiate Athletes
Bryan L. Shelangoski - University of Louisville
Marion E. Hambrick - University of Louisville
Jacob P. Gross - University of Louisville
Jonetta D. Weber - University of Louisville
Pages 17 - 42

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The purpose of this study was to understand Bandura’s (1977) self-efficacy and Vealey’s (1986) sport confidence implications on collegiate athletes and to explore gender, playing experience, and class status (e.g., first year, sophomore) differences related to self-efficacy in these student-athletes. The study attempted to fill two major gaps in previous research: (a) understanding the relationships of gender, playing experience, and class status on self-efficacy, specifically by analyzing a variety of sports; and (b) expanding upon previous research studies by increasing the generalizability and external validity of the existing self-efficacy theories. The results of the study indicated that student-athletes had high levels of self-efficacy; that males possessed higher levels than females; that more playing experience did not predict higher levels of self-efficacy; and finally, that student-athletes became more self-efficacious as their class status increased (i.e., progressed). Theoretical and practical implications of the study’s findings will be discussed.

Effects of Intercollegiate Athletics on Private Giving in Higher Education
Gi-Yong Koo - Troy University
Stephen W. Dittmore - University of Arkansas
Pages 1 - 16

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The success of intercollegiate athletics has been recognized as a powerful communication tool to enhance the university profile while an ongoing controversy regarding financial benefits of intercollegiate athletics still exists. Previous research focused primarily on the role of successful athletic programs in either alumni giving or total giving, rather than examining the relationship between academic and athletic giving. There is a need for research taking the direct association between athletic success and athletic giving into account when explaining the relationship between athletic giving and academic giving. The purpose of the study was, therefore, two-fold: to examine whether athletic giving is associated with success in intercollegiate athletic programs; and to explore whether athletic giving crowds out academic giving. A longitudinal design with panel data, including 155 Division I, II, and III universities that have fielded both football and basketball teams over a 10 year period from 2002-2003 to 2011-2012, was employed. Findings evidently supported spillover effects of athletic giving on academic giving rather than crowding out effect. As private giving is becoming one of the most critical financial resources, this study could assist administrators in both academics and athletics to build an optimal sharing structure of their financial resources.

Book Reviews

The System: The Glory and Scandal of Big-time College Football
By Jeff Benedict and Armen Keteyian. Published 2013 by Doubleday, New York, NY. (432 pages).
- Reviewed by B. David Ridpath, Ed.D. - Ohio University
- Pages vii-x

Cheating the Spread: Gamblers, Point Shavers, and Game Fixers in College Football and Basketball
By Albert Figone. Published 2012 by University of Illinois Press, Champaign, IL. (216 pages).
- Reviewed by Jordan Bass, Ph.D. - University of Kansas
- Pages v-vi

Saturday Millionaires: How Winning Football Builds Winning Colleges
By Kristi Dosh. Published 2013 by Wiley, New York, NY. (288 pages).
- Reviewed by Terence Eddy, Ph.D. - St. John’s University
- Pages i-iv