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Articles

NCAA Division I-FBS Salary Determinants: A Look at New and Amended Contracts
Kellyn Fogarty - Mansfield Oil
Brian P. Soebbing - Louisiana State University
Kwame J. A. Agyemang - Louisiana State University
Pages 123 - 138

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Similar to executive compensation, college head football coaches’ compensation receive scrutiny from both society and the academic community. Previous literature examining coaching salary determinants analyzed the individual’s wage for each year. Unlike previous research which examined all seasons of compensation, the present research only looks at the initial season of new and amended coaching contracts from 2007 through 2010. Results indicated higher actual performance compared to expected performance both in the previous year and over the past five years led to an increase in total compensation. Also, non-performance characteristics such as market size and other university characteristics lead to an increase in compensation.

Factors for Success in NCAA Division III Athletics
Adam G. Pfleegor - Mississippi State University
Matthew Katz - Miami University (Ohio)
Claire Schaeperkoetter - University of Kansas
Jordan Bass - University of Kansas
Pages 102 - 122

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NCAA Division III athletics are often viewed as one of the few remaining amateur sport endeavors (Simon, 2010). Although not immune from criticism, these institutions are primarily touted as an integrated educational and athletic experience for student-athletes and campus communities (Brand, 2006). However, in recent years, scholars (e.g., Sparvero & Warner, 2013) have begun to question whether the foundational purpose and Division III philosophy has given way to a more commercialized, financially driven model on display in big-time Division I athletics. Noting this, the primary purpose of this study is to use institutional theory as an explanatory for the effect that institutional factors (e.g., student population, academic prestige) and athletic factors (e.g., expenditures on sport) have on athletic success at NCAA Division III institutions. In order to accomplish this task, the NACDA Learfield Directors’ Cup standings were implemented as a measure of broad-based contemporary athletic success, and the total number of championships won was used as a measure of historical success. Ultimately, the findings of this study are intended to stimulate further discussion surrounding the purpose of Division III athletics, and whether the current trends allow institutions to maintain the romantic view of sport that the division attempts to uphold.

Does Race Still Matter?: A Post Bowl Championship Series (BCS) Era Examination of Student Athletes’ Experiences at a Division I Historically Black College/University (HBCU) and Predominantly White Institution (PWI)
Joseph N. Cooper - University of Connecticut
Shaun Dougherty - University of Connecticut
Pages 74 - 101

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The purpose of this study was to conduct a cross sectional analysis of Black and non-Black student athletes’ experiences both within and between a Division I historically Black college/university (HBCU) and predominantly White institution (PWI) in the post Bowl Championship Series (BCS) era to identify key factors associated with their academic performance and any observable differences in experience in college and educational goal commitments. Previous research suggested the campus climate and racial composition at an institution greatly influences the quality of student athletes’ college experiences and academic outcomes particularly for marginalized groups such as Black student athletes at PWIs (Brooks & Althouse, 2000, 2013). Yet, there is a dearth of contemporary research comparing the experiences of Black student athletes with their non-Black student athlete peers at HBCUs and PWIs. Participants in this study included 553 Division I student athletes (147at the HBCU and 406 at the PWI) across 10 sports. Comeaux & Harrison’s (2011) conceptual model for student athlete academic success was incorporated as a framework. Key findings revealed race continues to serve as a mitigating factor in the post BCS era regarding the quality of student athletes’ engagement, relationships, and satisfaction at a Division I HBCU and PWI. Implications for policy and practice are discussed.

Predicting Intrinsic Value of NCAA Division I Men’s Basketball Coaching Salaries
Ryan M. Brewer- Indiana University - Purdue University Columbus
Chad D. McEvoy - Syracuse University
Nels Popp - University of North Carolina Chapel Hill
Pages 50 - 73

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Men’s head basketball coaches at NCAA Division I programs commonly earn hundreds of thousands or even millions of dollars each year, and are commonly paid three or four times as much as their university presidents, yet these wages are currently not rigorously analyzed prior to making hiring choices. Regression modeling reveals that basketball program revenue predicts the vast majority of compensation levels, apart from lifetime successes in NCAA tournaments, each coach’s ratings percentage index (RPI), and lifetime winning percentage. Athletics directors therefore need a tool whereby intrinsic value of their head coaches can be assessed. This study remedies an identified gap in the literature by extending estimates of intrinsic valuation to coaches’ contracts, increasing labor market efficiency. Predicted salaries of contemporary coaches are compared to actual salaries, noting differences.

Social Media Policies within NCAA Member Institutions: Evolving Technology and its Impact on Policy
Jimmy Sanderson - Clemson University
Eric Snyder - University of Oklahoma
David Hull - University of Oklahoma
Kelly Gramlich - Clemson University
Pages 50 - 73

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Social media’s rapid adoption and usage by student-athletes has created risk for athletic department personnel who are often tasked with creating policy to protect both the department and the student-athletes. This research examined 244 social media policies from Division I, Division II, and Division III schools using framing and communication privacy management theories. An exploratory sequential mixed methods approach was utilized to collect the data. Analysis methods included content, thematic, and calculation of chi-square coefficient for significance. The results indicated that the policies overwhelmingly framed social media as restrictive. The analysis also revealed that student-athletes were presented with conflicting messages about ownership of social media content and were subjected to rules that governed content, monitoring, and the actions of others. As such, the authors suggest that social media policies should include more language that explains how student-athletes can benefit from social media technologies.

Examining the Influence of Gender on Athletes’ Levels of Moral Reasoning: A Comparison of Intercollegiate Athletes and Students
Vincent Lyons - Eastern Illinois University
Brian A. Turner - The Ohio State University
Pages 28 - 49

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The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of gender on levels of moral reasoning for intercollegiate athletes and college students. Moral reasoning for this research was defined through the insight and application of Kohlberg’s (1969) moral development theory. The sport specific measurement instrument utilized for this study was grounded in Kant’s (1968) deontological ethical framework, focusing on moral reasoning from an obligation perspective. Research questions were formulated to compare the levels of moral reasoning among intercollegiate athletes and college students on the gender variable. Study participants (N= 213) from a large, Midwestern university were administered the Hahm-Beller Values Choice Inventory (HBVCI), consisting of moral dilemma items common to sport (University of Idaho Center of ETHICS*, 2009). The results of this study indicated that female athletes morally reason at a higher level than male athletes, and that collegiate students who are non-athletes morally reason at a higher level than college athletes. Additionally, the data revealed that there was no significant interaction between gender and athlete status.

The Value of Intercollegiate Athletics Participation from the Perspective of Employers who Target Athletes
Peter Chalfin - University of Michigan
Erianne Weight - University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Barbara Osborne - University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Shelly Johnson - University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
Pages 1 - 27

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Many companies specifically target former student-athletes when hiring employees. This study utilized attribution theory to explore why employers target student-athletes and to identify which skills employers believe that student-athletes develop through athletics that make them more qualified to succeed in their industry. A survey of 50 employers revealed ten qualities/skills most strongly associated with athletic participation. Employers’ perceived value of athletic participation was significantly impacted by the athletic success and leadership experience of the student-athlete. The sport, competition level and gender of the student-athlete were not found to have a significant impact on the perceived value of athletic participation. The results of this study add to the literature examining the value of athletics and support the premise that intercollegiate athletics are aligned with the goals of higher education as they help develop student-athletes into future leaders.

Book Reviews

The Sons of Westwood: John Wooden, UCLA, and the Dynasty that Changed College Basketball
By John Matthew Smith. Published in 2013 by University of Illinois Press, Urbana, Chicago, and Springfield. (334 pages).
- Reviewed by Brendan Dwyer, Ph.D. - Virginia Commonwealth University
- Pages vii-ix

From the Buckeyes to the Bronx
By Rick Bay, Published 2012 by CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platfrom, Charleston, SC (343 pages).
- Reviewed by Liz Sattler, Ed.D. Candidate - Illinois State University
- Pages iv-vi

Fourth and Long: The Fight for the Soul of College Football
By John U. Bacon. Published 2013 by Simon & Schuster, New York, NY. (352 pages).
- Reviewed by Jonathan A. Jensen, Ph.D. Candidate - The Ohio State University
- Pages i-iii